Skip to main content

APA: A. Interview

Personal Communications

Personal communications that are not published are not included in a References list. 

Personal communciations can include:

  • private letters
  • personal interviews
  • e-mail messages
  • telephone conversations
  • non-archived online message boards or discussion group

If a personal communication is published or can otherwise be retrieved, follow the citation guidelines for archival documents on pages 212-215 of the APA Manual (6th ed.).

An Interview (p. 179)

Personal interviews are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data. Cite them in text only.

General Format 
 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Interviewee First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day,
      Year)
     
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Interviewee First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, personal communication, Month Day,
      Year)
 
      References:
      Not included.
  
Example
 
      In-Text Citation (Paraphrase): 
      (Y. Martel, personal communication, April 15, 2005)
 
      In-Text Citation (Quotation):
      (Y. Martel, personal communication, April 15, 2005)
 
      References:
      Not included.
  

Printable handouts